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阿尔卑斯山谷中的礼拜堂,奥地利 / IMA

发布时间:2017-06-30 15:27:07
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山间瑰宝。

项目

 设计公司:Innauer Matt Architekten 位置:奥地利 类型:宗教建筑教堂 材料:木材混凝土石材

生活在奥地利西部阿尔卑斯山谷中的当地人以放牧为生,在温暖的季节里,牧民把牲畜放到山间吃草。这里矮一些的草被当地人称为Vorsäß,而生长在温暖季节中的高一些的草叫做Alpe。Wirmboden就是其中一种矮草,它由当地牧民种植于Kanisfluh山谷的北面。几乎每一处种植Vorsäß田地都有自己的礼拜堂,或一些特殊的标志性建筑来庆贺这种传统植物对农业及畜牧业的贡献。32年前,Wirmboden曾有一座小型的礼拜堂,但在2012年,一次雪崩毁灭了这里的礼拜堂和一些棚屋。灾后的首要任务是棚屋修建,但对于礼拜堂的重修则面临着种种问题。礼拜堂重修项目由村民联合发起,随着大家的意见不一,重修的最大困难便成为协调村民之间的各种分歧,似乎永远不可能建造出令所有人满意的建筑。

▼礼拜堂外观,the front view

In the Bregenzerwald, an alpine valley in Western Austria, transhumance is still the commonly practised form of farming: Livestock is driven to graze on mountain pastures in the warmer months. The lower ones of these pastures are called Vorsäß while the higher ones, used in the warmest summer months, are called Alpe. Wirmboden is a Vorsäß at the foot of the steep north face of the valley’s Kanisfluh mountain, owned and managed by a collective of farmers. Almost every Vorsäß has its own little chapel or at least some designated space for the celebration of masses and the traditional consecration of the farmers and their livestock. For 32 years there was a little chapel at Wirmboden, but in 2012, the chapel and several huts were destroyed by an avalanche. While it was clear from the beginning that the huts would be rebuilt, it was more challenging to find a consensus on the construction of a new chapel. With the client being a collective of farmers, each with their own, differing opinion, the difficulties were not so much of architectural but rather of interpersonal nature. Finding a solution that would make everyone happy seemed impossible in the beginning.

▼当地环境,the site

如今,历经三年的协调,思考,规划,平均每平方米耗时6个月,这栋Wirmboden礼拜堂终于落成,并融合了所有人的需求。这座山顶礼拜堂让山谷村落更加传统和完整,村民们在此聚会,欢庆,祷告,享受平静的生活。

 So what we see now at Wirmboden is a symbol for the collective spirit of this very diverse group of people. It was them who negotiated, conceived, planned, and eventually built this chapel over the course of three years – that’s 6 months for every square meter of floor space in the building. Today, the mountain chapel complements the ensemble of alpine huts most naturally; it became the place where neighbours meet casually, where gatherings and celebrations are held, where people come to take a moment and pray. 

▼礼拜堂于棚屋中而立,the chapel among the huts

▼教堂采用原始的建筑形态,the chapel refers to the most original form of sacred buildings

这栋新型的礼拜堂遵循极简的设计原则,呼应了最原始的宗教建筑形态,强调了建筑的特殊身份。礼拜堂采用当地石材及混凝土建造,粗糙的木瓦条覆盖了陡峭的桁架,狭窄的木质入口引人进入建筑。

The simple, basic outline of the new chapel refers to the most original form of sacred buildings and highlights the characteristics of this special place and its use. According to tradition, the walls are made from stones collected around the place and tamped concrete. Rough split shingles cover the steep truss, and a narrow wooden entry leads into the small oratory. 

▼教堂采用当地石材及混凝土作为材料,the walls are made from stones collected around the place and tamped concrete

礼拜堂内部简单而低调,是当地人庆典集会的首选之地。漫反射的日光通过屋顶及立面不锈钢开口洒落在屋内泛起淡蓝色的光亮,营造出优雅而冥想的氛围。纪念照片放置在椽子之间的狭窄空间,来表达对逝者的怀念之情。入口处桁架及上方的钟楼由德国云杉制成,这种云杉木声学效果极好,常用作小提琴及吉他的制作材料。

With its simple and humble interior, the chapel is first and foremost a place of commemoration and reflection. Diffuse daylight falls through an opening in the roof ridge in blasted stainless steel to play with the light blue altar window, creating an ethereal, contemplative atmosphere. Memorial photo cards are placed in the narrow spaces between rafters, commemorating loved ones of the Wirmboden people. Entrance, truss and the bell space above the entrance are made from German spruce (sometimes called hazel spruce), a type of wood that is normally used for violins and guitars for its special acoustic qualities.

▼低调的教堂内部, simple and humble interior

▼屋顶的自然光,the natural light from the roof

▼教堂采用声学效果极高的木材,the wood is from a type with special acoustic qualities

礼拜堂的落成离不开所有人的共同努力,项目实施的整个过程也没有施工方的协助。全民参与让礼拜堂变为所有人的满意成果,也令其成为山中瑰宝。

Thanks to practical contributions by almost every single member of the Wirmboden collective, the new chapel was built without any help from third parties. Everyone’s participation made possible what seemed impossible in the beginning – making (almost) everyone happy with the result: A gem in the mountains.

▼立面图,elevation

 

▼剖面图,section

▼结构分析图,structure diagram

 


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